Supporting afterschool funding in the FY 2017 appropriations process

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Supporting afterschool funding in the FY 2017 appropriations process

Last month,  the President proposed a decrease in funding for the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) initiative—even though demand continues to increase for local afterschool programs. Efforts are now under way to make the case for funding 21st CCLC at $1.3 billion, an increase that would extend opportunities to an additional 140,000 children who are currently waiting for access. The increased funding is necessary to help meet the growing demand for quality afterschool and summer learning programs and also to help address rising labor costs associated with operating quality programs. Individual advocates can reach out to their members of Congress through the Afterschool Alliance website in support of 21st CCLC, while representatives of national, state and local organizations are encouraged to sign on to our letter of support for 21st CCLC.

Last week, Congress returned from a week-long recess with a host of education-related activity, including four education hearings in the House and Senate—three of which featured Acting Secretary of Education John B. King. Over the course of these hearings, King emphasized his plans to implement the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) as Congress intended, touted his support for afterschool programs, and spoke in support of the President’s FY 2017 spending plan for programs at the Department of Education.

On the spending and appropriations side, uncertainty continues to surround the House Budget Resolution process; however, Budget Committee Chairman Tom Price (R-GA) did announce plans to try to get a spending resolution approved in the coming weeks. At the same time, Appropriations Committees in the House and Senate have begun holding hearings with Administration officials on different parts of the FY 2017 budget, and Senators and Representatives are making their spending priorities known.

Take action now: let your representatives know that you support 21st CCLC as a means to keep kids learning, safe, and engaged in the hours after school.

Afterschool awesomeness prevails

When times feel uncertain, and our work seems never-ending, positive moments are all the more important. This can be especially true in advocacy, when a victory can be undone in a matter of minutes, and steps forward are often followed by leaps backwards. Endurance, hope, and determination...

BY: Jodi Grant      03/23/18

Afterschool funding preserved in proposed FY2018 spending bill, still under attack for 2019

  Update 2, March 23, 8 a.m.: After The House approved the $1.3 trillion FY2018 omnibus spending package on Thursday in a 256-167 vote, the Senate passed it just after midnight Friday in a 65-32 vote that averted a government shutdown. The bill now goes to President Trump for his...

BY: Erik Peterson      03/22/18

Secretary of Education DeVos fumbles when asked about afterschool funding

Something noteworthy happened on Tuesday, when Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos testified at a House Appropriations Subcommittee hearing on the U.S. Department of Education Fiscal Year 2019 budget proposal. Midway through the contentious hearing, DeVos fumbled badly. She dismissed a question...

BY: Jodi Grant      03/21/18

100+ members of Congress call for increase in afterschool funding

This week Reps. Lou Barletta (R-Pa.) and David Cicilline (D-R.I.) sent a bipartisan Dear Colleague letter signed by 111 members of Congress to House Appropriations Committee leaders Tom Cole (R-Okla.) and Rosa DeLauro (D-Conn.) sending a clear message “…to support funding for...

BY: Erik Peterson      03/20/18

More than 600 organizations send a message to Congress: Afterschool works

On March 13, the Afterschool Alliance released a letter signed by 80 national and more than 550 state and local organizations representing all 50 states and Washington, D.C., calling on House and Senate appropriators to fund the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) initiative at...

BY: Erik Peterson      03/16/18

Health & wellness efforts face deep cuts in FY19 budget proposal

Afterschool and summer learning programs provide comprehensive programming to help improve the health, safety, and overall wellbeing of students. However, the recent release of President Trump’s proposed FY 2019 budget threatens to negatively impact children’s health and safety in...

BY: Tiereny Lloyd      03/06/18

STEM bill passes House, could support afterschool STEM

On February 13, the House of Representatives unanimously passed the “Building Blocks of STEM Act.” The bipartisan legislation (H.R. 3397), sponsored by Rep. Jacky Rosen (D-Nev.) and cosponsored by Rep. Steve Knight (R-Calif.), directs the National Science Foundation (NSF) to...

BY: Erik Peterson      03/05/18

Administration slashes federal afterschool funding

Today the Trump administration released their fiscal year 2019 full budget proposal just days after Congress approved topline spending levels for fiscal years 2018 and 2019. The full budget represents the president’s vision for how Congress should spend federal funds for the upcoming fiscal...

BY: Erik Peterson      02/12/18

What the bipartisan budget deal means for afterschool

Around 2 a.m. this morning the Senate and then the House passed a bipartisan budget deal and continuing resolution that extends government funding to March 23, doubles the federal investment on child care, and also raises the spending caps for non-defense and defense spending for FY2018 and...

BY: Erik Peterson      02/09/18

New spending deal and CR within reach, child care funding could double

Update: Feb. 9, 7 a.m.: After a brief shutdown around midnight last night, the Senate and the House both passed the bipartisan budget deal and fifth continuing resolution. The government now remains funded at FY2017 levels through March 23, and new higher spending caps for defense and non...

BY: Erik Peterson      02/07/18

Afterschool awesomeness prevails

When times feel uncertain, and our work seems never-ending, positive moments are all the more important. This can be especially true in advocacy, when a victory can be undone in a matter of minutes, and steps forward are often followed by leaps backwards. Endurance, hope, and determination...

BY: Jodi Grant      03/23/18

Afterschool funding preserved in proposed FY2018 spending bill, still under attack for 2019

  Update 2, March 23, 8 a.m.: After The House approved the $1.3 trillion FY2018 omnibus spending package on Thursday in a 256-167 vote, the Senate passed it just after midnight Friday in a 65-32 vote that averted a government shutdown. The bill now goes to President Trump for his...

BY: Erik Peterson      03/22/18

100+ members of Congress call for increase in afterschool funding

This week Reps. Lou Barletta (R-Pa.) and David Cicilline (D-R.I.) sent a bipartisan Dear Colleague letter signed by 111 members of Congress to House Appropriations Committee leaders Tom Cole (R-Okla.) and Rosa DeLauro (D-Conn.) sending a clear message “…to support funding for...

BY: Erik Peterson      03/20/18

STEM bill passes House, could support afterschool STEM

On February 13, the House of Representatives unanimously passed the “Building Blocks of STEM Act.” The bipartisan legislation (H.R. 3397), sponsored by Rep. Jacky Rosen (D-Nev.) and cosponsored by Rep. Steve Knight (R-Calif.), directs the National Science Foundation (NSF) to...

BY: Erik Peterson      03/05/18

Administration slashes federal afterschool funding

Today the Trump administration released their fiscal year 2019 full budget proposal just days after Congress approved topline spending levels for fiscal years 2018 and 2019. The full budget represents the president’s vision for how Congress should spend federal funds for the upcoming fiscal...

BY: Erik Peterson      02/12/18

New spending deal and CR within reach, child care funding could double

Update: Feb. 9, 7 a.m.: After a brief shutdown around midnight last night, the Senate and the House both passed the bipartisan budget deal and fifth continuing resolution. The government now remains funded at FY2017 levels through March 23, and new higher spending caps for defense and non...

BY: Erik Peterson      02/07/18

Federal funding battle triggers government shutdown

Update: Jan. 22, 3 p.m.: A little after noon (ET)  today (Jan 22), Senate Democrats accepted Majority Leader McConnell’s commitment to bring stand-alone immigration reform legislation to the Senate floor by February 8 for an up or down vote to include provisions to extend the...

BY: Erik Peterson      01/19/18

New Year, new budget, same federal spending quagmire

In less than ten days, Congress will again face a deadline to address FY 2018 federal funding. The third continuing resolution (CR) passed by Congress in late December is scheduled to expire at midnight on January 19, 2018, and a way forward through the impasse has not yet emerged. While...

BY: Erik Peterson      01/12/18

The year in federal afterschool policy

Federal afterschool policy in 2017 had ups and downs, and plenty ‘firsts.’ It was the first time a president proposed complete elimination of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers initiative – the primary source of federal funding...

BY: Erik Peterson      12/22/17

Continuing resolution or spending omnibus?: Afterschool federal funding update

Dec. 22, 2017 Update: Congress passed a third continuing resolution prior to the Dec. 22nd deadline extending govt funding at current year levels (including 21st CCLC) until January 19th.  Dec. 8, 2017 Update: The House and Senate both passed a stop gap spending measure last night that...

BY: Erik Peterson      11/27/17

Afterschool awesomeness prevails

When times feel uncertain, and our work seems never-ending, positive moments are all the more important. This can be especially true in advocacy, when a victory can be undone in a matter of minutes, and steps forward are often followed by leaps backwards. Endurance, hope, and determination...

BY: Jodi Grant      03/23/18

Afterschool funding preserved in proposed FY2018 spending bill, still under attack for 2019

  Update 2, March 23, 8 a.m.: After The House approved the $1.3 trillion FY2018 omnibus spending package on Thursday in a 256-167 vote, the Senate passed it just after midnight Friday in a 65-32 vote that averted a government shutdown. The bill now goes to President Trump for his...

BY: Erik Peterson      03/22/18

100+ members of Congress call for increase in afterschool funding

This week Reps. Lou Barletta (R-Pa.) and David Cicilline (D-R.I.) sent a bipartisan Dear Colleague letter signed by 111 members of Congress to House Appropriations Committee leaders Tom Cole (R-Okla.) and Rosa DeLauro (D-Conn.) sending a clear message “…to support funding for...

BY: Erik Peterson      03/20/18

Administration slashes federal afterschool funding

Today the Trump administration released their fiscal year 2019 full budget proposal just days after Congress approved topline spending levels for fiscal years 2018 and 2019. The full budget represents the president’s vision for how Congress should spend federal funds for the upcoming fiscal...

BY: Erik Peterson      02/12/18

What the bipartisan budget deal means for afterschool

Around 2 a.m. this morning the Senate and then the House passed a bipartisan budget deal and continuing resolution that extends government funding to March 23, doubles the federal investment on child care, and also raises the spending caps for non-defense and defense spending for FY2018 and...

BY: Erik Peterson      02/09/18

New spending deal and CR within reach, child care funding could double

Update: Feb. 9, 7 a.m.: After a brief shutdown around midnight last night, the Senate and the House both passed the bipartisan budget deal and fifth continuing resolution. The government now remains funded at FY2017 levels through March 23, and new higher spending caps for defense and non...

BY: Erik Peterson      02/07/18

New Year, new budget, same federal spending quagmire

In less than ten days, Congress will again face a deadline to address FY 2018 federal funding. The third continuing resolution (CR) passed by Congress in late December is scheduled to expire at midnight on January 19, 2018, and a way forward through the impasse has not yet emerged. While...

BY: Erik Peterson      01/12/18

What could the Tax Cut Bill mean for afterschool programs?

On November 2 House Republicans released their proposed tax cut/tax reform package, called the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. This bill is on an aggressive timeline and could pass the House as soon as the week of November 13. The House Ways and Means Committee will mark up the bill beginning at noon on...

BY: Erik Peterson      11/07/17

$100 million win for afterschool as amendment passes House of Representatives

Last night the House of Representatives voted 228 to 188 in support of the DeLauro/Lowey amendment (#161) to restore $100 million of the 21st Century Community Learning Center (21st CCLC) afterschool and summer learning funding that had been cut in the Make America Secure and Prosperous...

BY: Erik Peterson      09/14/17

Policy update: What this week means for afterschool funding

After being out of Washington for the month of August, the House and Senate returned this week with a full agenda including advancing the fiscal year 2018 (FY18) spending process. Both the Senate Appropriations Committee and the House of Representatives took actions this week that could impact...

BY: Erik Peterson      09/08/17

Afterschool awesomeness prevails

When times feel uncertain, and our work seems never-ending, positive moments are all the more important. This can be especially true in advocacy, when a victory can be undone in a matter of minutes, and steps forward are often followed by leaps backwards. Endurance, hope, and determination...

BY: Jodi Grant      03/23/18

100+ members of Congress call for increase in afterschool funding

This week Reps. Lou Barletta (R-Pa.) and David Cicilline (D-R.I.) sent a bipartisan Dear Colleague letter signed by 111 members of Congress to House Appropriations Committee leaders Tom Cole (R-Okla.) and Rosa DeLauro (D-Conn.) sending a clear message “…to support funding for...

BY: Erik Peterson      03/20/18

Health & wellness efforts face deep cuts in FY19 budget proposal

Afterschool and summer learning programs provide comprehensive programming to help improve the health, safety, and overall wellbeing of students. However, the recent release of President Trump’s proposed FY 2019 budget threatens to negatively impact children’s health and safety in...

BY: Tiereny Lloyd      03/06/18

Administration slashes federal afterschool funding

Today the Trump administration released their fiscal year 2019 full budget proposal just days after Congress approved topline spending levels for fiscal years 2018 and 2019. The full budget represents the president’s vision for how Congress should spend federal funds for the upcoming fiscal...

BY: Erik Peterson      02/12/18

What the bipartisan budget deal means for afterschool

Around 2 a.m. this morning the Senate and then the House passed a bipartisan budget deal and continuing resolution that extends government funding to March 23, doubles the federal investment on child care, and also raises the spending caps for non-defense and defense spending for FY2018 and...

BY: Erik Peterson      02/09/18

New spending deal and CR within reach, child care funding could double

Update: Feb. 9, 7 a.m.: After a brief shutdown around midnight last night, the Senate and the House both passed the bipartisan budget deal and fifth continuing resolution. The government now remains funded at FY2017 levels through March 23, and new higher spending caps for defense and non...

BY: Erik Peterson      02/07/18

Federal funding battle triggers government shutdown

Update: Jan. 22, 3 p.m.: A little after noon (ET)  today (Jan 22), Senate Democrats accepted Majority Leader McConnell’s commitment to bring stand-alone immigration reform legislation to the Senate floor by February 8 for an up or down vote to include provisions to extend the...

BY: Erik Peterson      01/19/18

New Year, new budget, same federal spending quagmire

In less than ten days, Congress will again face a deadline to address FY 2018 federal funding. The third continuing resolution (CR) passed by Congress in late December is scheduled to expire at midnight on January 19, 2018, and a way forward through the impasse has not yet emerged. While...

BY: Erik Peterson      01/12/18

The year in federal afterschool policy

Federal afterschool policy in 2017 had ups and downs, and plenty ‘firsts.’ It was the first time a president proposed complete elimination of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers initiative – the primary source of federal funding...

BY: Erik Peterson      12/22/17

Continuing resolution or spending omnibus?: Afterschool federal funding update

Dec. 22, 2017 Update: Congress passed a third continuing resolution prior to the Dec. 22nd deadline extending govt funding at current year levels (including 21st CCLC) until January 19th.  Dec. 8, 2017 Update: The House and Senate both passed a stop gap spending measure last night that...

BY: Erik Peterson      11/27/17

Afterschool awesomeness prevails

When times feel uncertain, and our work seems never-ending, positive moments are all the more important. This can be especially true in advocacy, when a victory can be undone in a matter of minutes, and steps forward are often followed by leaps backwards. Endurance, hope, and determination...

BY: Jodi Grant      03/23/18

Afterschool funding preserved in proposed FY2018 spending bill, still under attack for 2019

  Update 2, March 23, 8 a.m.: After The House approved the $1.3 trillion FY2018 omnibus spending package on Thursday in a 256-167 vote, the Senate passed it just after midnight Friday in a 65-32 vote that averted a government shutdown. The bill now goes to President Trump for his...

BY: Erik Peterson      03/22/18

100+ members of Congress call for increase in afterschool funding

This week Reps. Lou Barletta (R-Pa.) and David Cicilline (D-R.I.) sent a bipartisan Dear Colleague letter signed by 111 members of Congress to House Appropriations Committee leaders Tom Cole (R-Okla.) and Rosa DeLauro (D-Conn.) sending a clear message “…to support funding for...

BY: Erik Peterson      03/20/18

More than 600 organizations send a message to Congress: Afterschool works

On March 13, the Afterschool Alliance released a letter signed by 80 national and more than 550 state and local organizations representing all 50 states and Washington, D.C., calling on House and Senate appropriators to fund the 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) initiative at...

BY: Erik Peterson      03/16/18

Health & wellness efforts face deep cuts in FY19 budget proposal

Afterschool and summer learning programs provide comprehensive programming to help improve the health, safety, and overall wellbeing of students. However, the recent release of President Trump’s proposed FY 2019 budget threatens to negatively impact children’s health and safety in...

BY: Tiereny Lloyd      03/06/18

Administration slashes federal afterschool funding

Today the Trump administration released their fiscal year 2019 full budget proposal just days after Congress approved topline spending levels for fiscal years 2018 and 2019. The full budget represents the president’s vision for how Congress should spend federal funds for the upcoming fiscal...

BY: Erik Peterson      02/12/18

What the bipartisan budget deal means for afterschool

Around 2 a.m. this morning the Senate and then the House passed a bipartisan budget deal and continuing resolution that extends government funding to March 23, doubles the federal investment on child care, and also raises the spending caps for non-defense and defense spending for FY2018 and...

BY: Erik Peterson      02/09/18

New spending deal and CR within reach, child care funding could double

Update: Feb. 9, 7 a.m.: After a brief shutdown around midnight last night, the Senate and the House both passed the bipartisan budget deal and fifth continuing resolution. The government now remains funded at FY2017 levels through March 23, and new higher spending caps for defense and non...

BY: Erik Peterson      02/07/18

Federal funding battle triggers government shutdown

Update: Jan. 22, 3 p.m.: A little after noon (ET)  today (Jan 22), Senate Democrats accepted Majority Leader McConnell’s commitment to bring stand-alone immigration reform legislation to the Senate floor by February 8 for an up or down vote to include provisions to extend the...

BY: Erik Peterson      01/19/18

New Year, new budget, same federal spending quagmire

In less than ten days, Congress will again face a deadline to address FY 2018 federal funding. The third continuing resolution (CR) passed by Congress in late December is scheduled to expire at midnight on January 19, 2018, and a way forward through the impasse has not yet emerged. While...

BY: Erik Peterson      01/12/18

Federal funding battle triggers government shutdown

Update: Jan. 22, 3 p.m.: A little after noon (ET)  today (Jan 22), Senate Democrats accepted Majority Leader McConnell’s commitment to bring stand-alone immigration reform legislation to the Senate floor by February 8 for an up or down vote to include provisions to extend the...

BY: Erik Peterson      01/19/18

House passes two justice-related bills supporting child well-being

Last week the House of Representatives passed two pieces of juvenile justice-related legislation that will have a positive impact on young people in and out of afterschool programs. On Monday evening, Congressmen Mike Bishop (R-Mich.) and Adam Schiff’s (D-Calif.) bipartisan Child...

BY: Erik Peterson      06/01/17

New career education bill includes opportunities for afterschool

Update, May 17: (H.R. 2352) unanimously passed out of the House Education and the Workforce Committee on May 17, 2017. Original post, May 12: On May 4, Reps. Glenn “GT” Thompson (R-Pa.) and Raja Krishnamoorthi (D-Ill.) introduced the Strengthening Career and Technical...

BY: Jillian Luchner      05/12/17

Legislation proposed to fight chronic absenteeism

In April, Reps. Tim Ryan (D-Ohio) and Jaime Herrera Beutler (R-Wash.) introduced the Chronic Absenteeism Reduction Action (H.R. 1864), which would open up additional funds to be used for strategies to reduce school day absence by amending Title IV-A of the Every Student Succeeds...

BY: Jillian Luchner      05/05/17

Afterschool funding preserved in proposed FY2017 spending bill, still under attack for 2018

May 8, 2017 update: The President signed the FY2017 spending bill into law last Friday. Read Afterschool Alliance Executive Director Jodi Grant’s statement on the law. May 4, 2017 update: Today, Congress passed its final fiscal year (FY) 2017 omnibus spending bill. The bill passed...

BY: Erik Peterson      05/01/17

New progress on juvenile justice reauthorization bills

Juvenile justice legislation has been on the move in both houses of Congress. On April 4, the House Education and Workforce committee marked up and passed H.R. 1809, sponsored by Rep. John Lewis (R-Minn.), by unanimous voice vote. The bipartisan legislation, similar to last year’s bill H.R....

BY: Jillian Luchner      04/28/17

What to expect as the first ESSA state plan deadline approaches

Since the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) was passed in December 2015, a great deal has been done to get ready for implementation and a great deal is left to happen (including appropriations) before the law goes into full effect in the 2017-2018 school year. Eighteen states aim to submit state...

BY: Jillian Luchner      04/03/17

Senators celebrate the value of apprenticeship programs

Sens. Tim Scott (R-S.C.) and Cory Booker (D-N.J.) reintroduced the “Leveraging and Energizing America’s Apprenticeship Programs (LEAP) Act” to the 115th Congress on February 15. The act provides employers with tax credits of up to $1,500 for each eligible apprentice they hire...

BY: Jillian Luchner      02/27/17

What to expect from the budget & appropriations processes (and how to make an impact)

It’s February, which technically means it's time for the release of the president’s budget proposal for the upcoming fiscal year. Under new administrations, the budget proposal release date is often pushed back to give the incoming president time to put together a cabinet...

BY: Jillian Luchner      02/17/17

What will House resolutions of disapproval mean for ESSA implementation?

By Ellen Fern, Managing Director at Washington Partners On Tuesday, February 7, the House of Representatives voted to overturn Obama administration regulations regarding accountability under the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) as well as regulations relating to teacher-preparation...

BY: Jillian Luchner      02/16/17

Secretary of Education DeVos fumbles when asked about afterschool funding

Something noteworthy happened on Tuesday, when Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos testified at a House Appropriations Subcommittee hearing on the U.S. Department of Education Fiscal Year 2019 budget proposal. Midway through the contentious hearing, DeVos fumbled badly. She dismissed a question...

BY: Jodi Grant      03/21/18

Afterschool shines in ESSA implementation hearing

On July 18, the House Committee on Education and the Workforce Education (HEW) convened a hearing entitled “ESSA Implementation: Exploring State and Local Reform Efforts.” The hearing focused on what states have done so far to develop their consolidated state accountability plans for...

BY: Erik Peterson      07/21/17

Secretary DeVos testifies on administration?s education budget

Yesterday, Education Secretary Betsy DeVos testified before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies on the Trump administration’s newly released FY2018 full education budget proposal. While the hearing mainly focused on school...

BY: Erik Peterson      05/25/17

What to expect as the first ESSA state plan deadline approaches

Since the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) was passed in December 2015, a great deal has been done to get ready for implementation and a great deal is left to happen (including appropriations) before the law goes into full effect in the 2017-2018 school year. Eighteen states aim to submit state...

BY: Jillian Luchner      04/03/17

What will House resolutions of disapproval mean for ESSA implementation?

By Ellen Fern, Managing Director at Washington Partners On Tuesday, February 7, the House of Representatives voted to overturn Obama administration regulations regarding accountability under the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) as well as regulations relating to teacher-preparation...

BY: Jillian Luchner      02/16/17

Senate confirms Trump nominee Betsy DeVos as U.S. Secretary of Education

On February 7, the Senate voted to confirm Elisabeth (Betsy) DeVos as the new U.S. Secretary of Education (learn more about Secretary DeVos). Trump’s controversial nominee for the cabinet position received 50 votes in favor of her confirmation and 50 against. The vote...

BY: Jillian Luchner      02/08/17

Panel: When rethinking school governance, afterschool is a piece of the local puzzle

On January 19th, the National School Boards Association and the National School Boards Action Center hosted the Public Education Agenda for America's Success forum. Representatives from both conservative and liberal policy and research institutes came together in Washington, DC to discuss...

BY: Jillian Luchner      01/26/17

Secretary of Education nominee Betsy DeVos testifies in Senate

On Tuesday evening, January 17, 2017, the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) Committee convened a hearing to consider President Donald Trump’s nominee for Secretary of Education, Michigan philanthropist and education activist Betsy DeVos. During the course of the...

BY: Erik Peterson      01/20/17

Opportunities for afterschool abound as ESSA is implemented

In the New Year, states are busy getting ready for the new federal education law, the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), to go into full effect with the start of the new 2017-18 school year. In these final months of preparation, states are finishing first and second rounds of...

BY: Jillian Luchner      01/18/17

Previewing the 115th Congress: What does it mean for afterschool?

As 2016 comes to a close, so too does the 114th Congress. The 115th Congress will be called into session at noon on January 3 and will mark the first time in six years that the United States is under a unified government, meaning that the Senate and House of Representatives, as well as the...

BY: Erik Peterson      12/14/16